The resistance against quinolones and third- / fourth-generation cephalosporins has steadily increased since 2004, but stabilized during the last years.
Escherichia coli are among the most frequent microorganisms in both the hospital and the ambulatory setting. E. coli is a colonizer of the intestinal tract and as such often causing urinary tract infections, pyelitis and bacteremia.
Fluoroquinolone resistance has steadily increased from 10.3 % in 2004 to 19.4 % in 2015, however they decreased significantly during the last four years. As fluoroquinolone consumption is an important trigger for fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli, they should only be used in exceptional cases for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections.
Resistance rates to 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins were steadily increasing from 0.9% in 2004 to 11% in 2018, but stabilized since then. This increase was observed in both the inpatient and the outpatient setting. E. coli which are resistant to 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins were evidenced in numerous different settings such as in people returning from foreign travel, in animals or in water bodies.
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95% CI: 95% confidence interval
For this analysis invasive isolates (blood and cerebrospinal fluid) tested against the corresponding antibiotic (category) were considered only. If multiple antibiotics within the same antibiotic category were tested, the most resistant result was selected. In case of multiple isolates, the first isolate per patient, microorganism and calendar year was included only. Results are reported as delivered by laboratories. Statistics may be influenced by the changing number of laboratories participating. Data are provided for surveillance purposes and are not intended to be used for therapeutic decisions solely.